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4 - Buildings
ARTICLE I. IN GENERAL
ss. 4-1. Definitions.
ss. 4-2. Compliance with chapter.
ss. 4-3. Inspector of buildings - Appointment; qualifications; term.
ss. 4-4. Same - Powers and duties generally.
ss. 4-5. Same - Authority as to materials and methods of construction equivalent to requirements of chapter.
ss. 4-6. Same - Waiver of chapter requirements for certain mall structures.
ss. 4-7. Garbage disposals required in new dwelling units.
ss. 4-8. Certificates of occupancy required for dwellings.
ss. 4-9. Inspection of buildings; notice of readiness for inspection.
ss. 4-10. Permits - Required; application; plans and specifications.
ss. 4-11. Same - Revocation; posting; filing.
ss. 4-12. Exemptions from chapter.
ss. 4-13. Penalties; notice of violation.
ARTICLE II. BOARD OF APPEAL.
ss. 4-14. Established; composition; appointment and qualification of members; terms of members.
ss. 4-15. Vacancies; participation of members in cases in which they have interest; compensation; expenses.
ss. 4-16. Standing to appeal to board.
ss. 4-17. Rules of procedure; decisions generally. ss. 4-18. Revocation of permits; variances.
ARTICLE III. CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS. DIVISION 1. GENERALLY.
ss. 4-19. Frame buildings - Generally.
ss. 4-20. Same - Frame construction in buildings over two stories.
ss. 4-21. Fire stopping generally.
ss. 4-22. Woodwork near chimneys and fireplaces.
ss. 4-23. Walls near rear lot lines.
ss. 4-24. Garages.
ss. 4-25. First floor area in buildings.
DIVISION 2. FOUNDATIONS AND SUPPORTS.
ss. 4-26. Generally.
ss. 4-27. Supports; depth of foundations; footings where solid ledge exists; use of unsafe stones in walls on masonry foundations.
ss. 4-28. Footings generally.
ss. 4-29. Porches, plazas and bay windows.
ss. 4-30. Foundation wall thickness.
ss. 4-31. Columns, piers, posts, etc.
ss. 4-32. Use of wooden posts.
DIVISION 3. STRESSES, LOADS AND SPANS.
ss. 4-33. Deflection of spans.
ss. 4-34. Floors and stairways.
ss. 4-35. Ceiling joists.
ss. 4-36. Wood rafters.
DIVISION 4. FIREPLACES, CHIMNEYS, ETC.
ss. 4-37. Chimneys. ss. 4-38. Fireplaces.
ss. 4-39. Smoke pipes.
ARTICLE 1. IN GENERAL.
Section 4-1. Definitions. For the purposes of this chapter, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them by this section: Alteration. Any change in a building not constituting a repair. 2 Dwelling. A building used or constructed or adapted to be used for human habitation. Fire-resisting building. One having all exterior and party walls, vertical or horizontal weight-bearing supports, floor and wall construction, inside walls, partitions and stairs, roof and roof structures, bays, cornices and projections of brick, concrete, terra cotta or other incombustible materials. Door and window frames, sash, interior trimmings and hand rails for stairs may be of wood. Nailing strips, sleepers and furring, if imbedded in concrete or mortar, may be of wood. Frame building. One of which supporting walls and interior construction are wholly or in part of wood, including enclosing brick, and similar veneers dependent upon the wood frame for stability and support. Minimum timber sizes. Where "minimum timber sizes" are given in this chapter, they shall be taken to refer to the nominal size. Repair. Removal of existing construction and replacement with approved materials which do not increase the height, area or bulk or involve the cutting or removal of any part of walls, roofs, floors or other structural elements of their supports and do not affect the required means of egress, light or ventilation or chimneys and their flues. 3 Slow-burning building. A building having all walls of approved masonry or reinforced concrete, in which the interior structural elements, columns, floors and roofs are heavy timbers with smooth flat surfaces, assembled to avoid thin sections, sharp projections and concealed or inaccessible spaces. Story. The part of a building above the basement or cellar and between the top of any tier of floor beams and the top of the tier of floor or roof beams next above. 4 (6-16-65, ss 6, 7.)
Section 4-2. Compliance with chapter. No building, structure or part thereof shall be constructed except in conformity with this chapter. No building already erected or hereafter built shall be raised or built up in such a manner that were such building wholly built or constructed after June 16, 1965, it would be in violation of any provisions thereof. No buildings or structure shall be moved to any location where its construction would be in violation of the provisions of this chapter. Any alteration, addition to or reconstruction of any existing building or structure already erected or to be built shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter. Repairs as defined in section 4-1 shall not be subject to the provisions of this chapter. (6-16-65, ss 5.)
Section 4-3. Inspector of buildings - Appointment; qualifications; term. The board of selectmen shall appoint an inspector of buildings, who shall be a voter in the town, shall have at least five years experience as a building foreman, architect or engineer and shall serve until removed for cause by the board of selectmen. (6-16-65, ss l.)
Section 4-4. Same - Powers and duties generally. The inspector of buildings shall be charged with the inspection of buildings, the enforcement of this chapter and such other duties as are imposed by the general laws of the commonwealth. He shall keep a record of the business of his office, shall submit to the board of selectmen a yearly report of such business and such other reports as they may call for. Subject to the provisions of this chapter, the inspector of buildings shall grant permits for the erection, alteration or moving of buildings, and no building, structure or foundation shall be built, altered or moved without such permit. He shall have the right of entry at any reasonable time in the performance of his duty to examine and inspect any premises, buildings or other structures. (6-16-65, ss 2.)
Section 4-5. Same - Authority as to materials and methods of construction equivalent to requirements of chapter. Materials or methods of construction equivalent to those required by the provisions of this chapter may be allowed in place thereof by the inspector of buildings, if he is satisfied that the proposed materials and methods of construction are equivalent to that required by this chapter. The inspector of buildings shall be empowered to adopt accepted methods of testing materials and types of construction prior to his approval of the same. (6-16-65, ss 9.)
Section 4-6. Same - Waiver of chapter requirements for certain small structures The inspector of buildings shall have power, in his discretion, to waive any or all requirements of this chapter, other than those contained in any statute of the commonwealth, in the case of small dairy rooms, root cellars, poultry houses, farm and storage sheds and other similar small structures; provided, that the same are so located on the owner's property as not to menace the property of another. (6-16-65, ss 23.)
Section 4-7. Garbage disposals required in new building units. There shall be installed and maintained in accordance with acceptable plumbing standards in the kitchen sink of every dwelling unit constructed after the date of enactment of this section a disposal unit for the grinding of food wastes into water-carried pulp for discharge into a sewage system. 5
Section 4-8. Certificates of occupancy required for dwellings. No dwelling unit shall be occupied until a certificate of occupancy is issued by the board of selectmen or their agent stating that the dwelling unit complies with the provisions of section 4-7. (3-23-70.) Whoever violates any provision of this by-law after receipt of written notice of noncompliance from the Board of Selectmen or their agent, or the Board of Health shall be fined a sum not to exceed $20.00 for each violation. Each day of noncompliance with the provisions of this by-law shall constitute a new and separate violation. (3-23-70 art. 2.)
Section 4-9. Inspection of buildings; notice of readiness for inspection. No buildings shall be covered by lathing, sheathing or otherwise until the inspector of buildings has, by examination, ascertained that the building is in compliance with this chapter. The inspector of buildings shall be notified by the owner or his duly authorized agent whenever any building is ready for inspection. The inspector shall inspect all buildings within seventy-two hours after such notification. He shall post a written approval in a conspicuous place within such building after it meets with his approval. (6-16-65, ss 15.)
Section 4-10. Permits - Required; application; plans and specifications. 6 Every person intending to build, construct, reconstruct or alter any building, structure or foundation, including temporary structures, platforms or stands for assembly purposes, shall, before commencing the same, file with the inspector of buildings, an application for a building permit on a form provided therefor, and shall, if required by the inspector of buildings or the board of appeal, file the plans, specifications and details or other full and accurate description of the intended building, construction or reconstruction or alteration. This permit shall be in addition to such permits as may be required by the laws of the commonwealth for specific classes of buildings. (6-16-65, ss 3.) Building Permit Fee Schedule Projects valued up to $5,000 $5.00 Projects valued greater than $5,000 2.50 per $1,000 valuation Specialized industrial equipment is excluded . Zoning Board of Appeals Applications $ 50.00 Planning Board Applications 50.00 Preliminary Subdivision Plans 50.00 Definitive Subdivision Plans 200.00 Form A Plans 25.00 Request for Zoning Changes 50.00 . (Amended May 30, 1989, article 53)
Section 4-11. Same - Revocation; posting; filing. All permits shall be void if operations thereunder are not commenced within ninety days after the date of the permit, or if the operations thereunder are discontinued for a period of more than six months. Notice of permits granted shall be posted by the owner on the premises. All plans, applications and records of permits shall be kept on file by the inspector of buildings and shall be open to public inspection, but shall not be taken from the custody of the inspector of buildings. (6-16-65, ss 4.)
Section 4-12. Exemptions from chapter. This chapter shall not apply to buildings or structures that are owned or occupied by the United States or by the commonwealth other than those used, in whole or in part, as a place of assembly, and except bridges, quays and wharves. (6-16-65, ss 36.)
Section 4-13. Penalties; notice of violation. If any person violates any of the requirements of this chapter, or any amendment thereof or any permit issued thereunder, he shall, except when other wise provided in this chapter or by statute, be liable to a penalty not exceeding one hundred dollars for each violation thereof. 7 The inspector of buildings, upon discovery of a violation of this chapter, shall give notice thereof in writing to the person or to the owner of the premises where such violation occurs, and may order such person or owner to remove any part of a structure erected in violation thereof or to do such other acts as the inspector of buildings deems necessary in order to comply with the requirements of this chapter and of the permit issued hereunder. If, after such notice, such person or owner continues such violation or fails to obey such lawful order of the inspector of buildings, the inspector may revoke the permit for the work in connection with which such violation occurred, and it shall thereupon become unlawful for the owner or contractor to proceed with such work. (6-16-65, ss 32.) ARTICLE II. BOARD OF APPEAL. Section
4-14. Established; composition; appointment and qualification of members; terms of members. A board of appeal is hereby established to consist of three members to be appointed by the board of selectmen. All members of the board of appeal shall be residents of the town. The appointments first made shall be for one, two and three years, respectively, so that the term of one member shall expire each year. All subsequent appointments shall be made for a term of three years to begin on the first day of April. (6-16-65, ss 31.)
Section 4-15. Vacancies; participation of members in cases in which they have interest; compensation; expenses. Vacancies shall be filled by appointment by the board of selectmen for any unexpired term. No member of the board of appeal shall sit on a case in which he is interested. If any member is so disqualified or absent, the other two members may appoint a substitute. The members shall serve without pay, but the reasonable expenses of the board of appeal, when approved by the board of selectmen, shall be paid. (6-16-65, ss 31.)
Section 4-16. Standing to appeal to board. Any person who is aggrieved by an order, decision, permit or refusal of a permit by the inspector of buildings may appeal therefrom to the board of appeal, within ten days from the date of such order, decision, permit or refusal, by filing a written claim of appeal in the office of the town clerk. Any owner or lessee of real estate within two hundred feet of the property to which a permit relates shall have the right of appeal to the board of appeal. (6-16-65, ss 31.)
Section 4-17. Rules of procedure; decisions generally. The board of appeal shall hear all appeals and shall determine its own rules of procedure and of evidence. If it modifies or overrules the action of the inspector of buildings, a new permit or order in conformity with its decision shall be issued by it without delay. Every decision of the board of appeal shall be in writing and shall require the assent of at least two members, except as hereinafter provided, and shall be filed in the office of the inspector of buildings, within ten days after the completion of the hearing, and a copy thereof shall be sent forthwith by the inspector of buildings to the applicant. (6-16-65, ss 31.)
Section 4-18. Revocation of permits; variances. (a) The board of appeal, by unanimous vote, shall have the right to revoke a permit within ten days after the posting of the notice of a permit on the premises, if, in its opinion, such premises will result in a menace to public safety, health or welfare of the neighborhood. (b) The board of appeal may vary application of this chapter in specific cases where the enforcement would involve practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship and wherein desirable relief may be granted without substantially derogating from the intents and purposes of this chapter and not otherwise. No such variance or revocation shall be made unless made by the board of appeal after a public hearing of which notice shall be mailed to the petitioner and to the owners of all property within two hundred feet of the premises to which an appeal relates, as they appear in the most recent tax list, and shall be posted on the bulletin board at the town office building and on the premises to which the appeal relates. (6-16-65, ss 31.)
Section 4-19. Frame buildings - Generally. (a) Strength. Every frame building shall have all parts of sufficient strength to carry the weight of the superstructure and the superficial loads as set out in sections 4-33 to 4-36 and shall be built with sills, post, girts or ledger boards, studs and plates, all properly framed, braced and secured to the satisfaction of the inspector of buildings. (b) Soundness of lumber. All lumber shall be structurally sound. (c) Sills. All sills shall be anchored to masonry walls with one-half inch bolts bedded firmly in the masonry and spaced not more than eight feet apart or otherwise properly anchored. (d) Studding. Studding in exterior walls shall be not less than two inches by four inches in size and spaced not over sixteen inches on centers. Studding in main and carrying partitions shall be not less than two inches by four inches and spaced sixteen inches on centers and shall run down to girders or shall rest on partition shoes where the partition crosses the floor joists. Floor joists under and running parallel with such partition shall be doubled. Studding on each side of all openings in all walls and petitions shall be doubled. (e) Bridging of bearing partitions. Bearing partitions over nine feet in height shall be bridged at least once. (f) Headers. Headers over all openings shall be doubled and shall be of sufficient size and strength to properly support all superimposed loads. (g) Floor and roof joists and beams generally. Floor and flat roof joists and beams shall be cross-bridged at least once in spans of ten feet or more, such that not more than eight feet intervenes between bearing and bridging. Bridging shall be not less than one inch by three inches, double nailed at each accurately mitered end. Solid bridging equivalent to size of joists is permitted. (h) Cutting of floor joists for piping, etc. The cutting of floor joists to facilitate the installation of piping and duct work will be permitted with the following limitations: (1) The top or bottom edges of joists may be notched not to exceed one-sixth of the joist depth. Notching the top or bottom edge of joists will not be permitted in the middle third of any joist span. (2) If cutting of a floor joist more than one-sixth of its depth is found necessary, a header the full depth of the joist shall be cut in to support the end of the joist. (3) Where location of pipes necessitates passing through the joists, holes shall be drilled to receive the pipes. The diameter of the holes shall be not more than one-half inch greater than the outside diameter of the pipe and in no case greater than two and one-half inches. (4) The edge of the holes shall not be located nearer than two inches from the top or bottom edge of the joist. (5) No stud shall be cut into a bearing petition. No stud shall be cut more than one-third its depth to receive piping and duct work. If more depth is required the partition studs shall be increased in depth accordingly. (6-16-65, ss 8.)
Section 4-20. Same - Frame construction in buildings over two stories. No building of over two stories, exclusive of the attic, shall be built of wooden or frame construction. (6-16-65, ss 25.)
Section 4-21. Fire stopping generally. In all buildings hereafter erected, all stud walls, partitions, furrings and spaces between joists, when they rest on division walls or bearing partitions, shall be fire stopped in a manner to cut off concealed draft openings and form an effectual horizontal smoke stop between stories and between a top story and the roof. (6-16-65, ss 15.)
Section 4-22. Woodwork near chimneys and fireplaces. No woodwork shall be nearer than one inch to any chimney, and no timber or woodwork shall be within two inches of the back wall of any fireplace. The header beam, carrying the tall beams of a floor and supporting the trimmer arch in front of a fireplace, shall not be less than eighteen inches from the finished chimney breast. All chimneys shall be flashed and firestopped at each floor level. (6-16-65, ss 11.)
Section 4-23. Walls near rear lot lines. No wall of any building shall be hereinafter constructed, erected or placed within five feet of its side or rear lot line, other than a street line, unless it is constructed of approved masonry, reinforced concrete or, if other material is used, the same shall have a fire rating of at least three-fourths of an hour. (6-16-65, ss 22.)
Section 4-24. Garages. Notwithstanding any of the other requirements of this chapter, a private garage for not more than two automobiles may be located beneath or in direct contact with the walls of any dwelling. Garages attached directly to a building shall be separated therefrom by a fireproof wall not less than four inches thick or shall be covered with a material with not less than three-fourths hour fire rating. Unless of fireproof construction, the remaining walls and ceilings shall be plastered with cement plaster on metal or gypsum lath. Garages located beneath any building with the floor above of wood construction shall be constructed with fireproof walls and the ceiling shall be wire lathed and plastered with cement plaster at least three-fourths inch thick. (6-16-65, ss 24.)
Section 4-25. First floor area in buildings. No building shall be hereafter constructed or altered to be used for human habitation unless the same has two or more separate rooms, exclusive of bath or toilet rooms, having a total floor area of four hundred and fifty square feet on the first floor. (6-16-65, ss 26.) DIVISION 2. FOUNDATIONS AND SUPPORTS.
Section 4-26. Generally. No building shall be hereafter constructed or altered to be used for human habitation unless the same has a full solid foundation or cellar wall, reasonable areaways and openings for light and entrances excepted, extending at least three feet six inches below the grade and also extending at least six inches above the grade conforming to the minimum requirement of sections 4-27 to 4-30. (6-16-65, ss 27.)
Section 4-27. Supports; depth of foundations; footings where solid ledge exists; use of unsafe stones in walls on masonry foundations. Every building or structure, except as provided in this chapter, shall be supported on masonry piers, metal posts or have foundations of brick, stone, iron, steel, concrete or cement blocks. All foundations shall extend at least four feet below any adjoining surface exposed to frost, unless they rest on solid ledge, and in all other cases they shall extend to firm ground satisfactory to the inspector of buildings. Footings are not required where a solid ledge exists. The inspector of buildings may forbid the use in masonry foundations walls of unbroken round boulder stones of such size or of such quantity as will, in his opinion, make the wall unsafe. (6-16-65, ss 16.)
Section 4-28. Footings generally. All external walls, columns and piers that rest on earth shall be supported on solid masonry, plain concrete or reinforced concrete footings. Such footings shall be of sufficient size to safety support the loads imposed as determined from the character of the soil. Forms for footings shall be used if, in the judgement of the inspector of buildings, soil conditions require them. Chimney footings shall not be less than eight inches thick, and shall be proportionately thicker where, in the judgement of the inspector of buildings, the character of the soil so requires. These footings shall project not less than two-thirds of their thickness beyond the chimney on all sides. (6-16-65, ss 17.)
Section 4-29. Porches, plazas and bay windows. Porches, plazas and bay windows, if supported from the ground, shall have suitable foundation of stone, brick or concrete, or be supported with iron posts or masonry piers built on firm ground and extending not less than four feet below the surface of the ground. If iron posts are used, they shall rest on a footing of stone or concrete. (6-16-65, ss 18.)
Section 4-30. Foundation wall thickness. The following minimum requirements for foundation wall thickness shall apply: The thickness of foundation walls shall be not less than the wall immediately above, and shall not be less than shown in the following table for the type of foundation and superstructure construction used. The combined height of an eight inch foundation wall and the wall supported shall not exceed thirty feet.
THICKNESS OF FOUNDATION WALLS . .
Foundation Wall Construction    Maximum Depth Below Grade (feet)                                
Type of Wall    Thickness (in)  Frame   Masonry Veneer  Masonry 
Hollow Masonry  8       4       4.5     5       
        10      5       5.5     6       
        12      7       7       7       
Solid Masonry   8       5       5.5     6       
        10      6       6       6.5     
        12      7       7       7       
Concrete        8       6       6       6       
        10      7       7       7       
Walls of rubble stone work shall be not less than sixteen inches thick, well bonded and laid solid in mortar throughout. (6-16-65,ss 19.)
Section 4-31. Columns, piers, posts, etc. Every column, pier, post or other vertical support shall be of sufficient strength to safely bear the weight of the superstructure and the load of the portion of each and every floor and the roof depending on it for support. The minimum dimensions of column footings shall be eighteen inches by eighteen inches by twelve inches thick. (6-16-65, ss 20.)
Section 4-32. Use of wooden posts. Structures not exceeding ten feet in height and not for human habitation, if built of wood, sheet metal or similar light material, may be set upon wooden posts. (6-16-65, ss 21.)
DIVISION 3. STRESSES, LOADS AND SPANS.
Section 4-33. Deflection of spans. The permitted span length for different depths of floor joists and roof timbers shall be the limit necessary to keep the deflection within one three hundred sixtieth of the span. (6-16-65, ss 10.)
Section 4-34. Floors and stairways. All floors and stairways in all buildings shall be constructed of sufficient strength to bear safely the weight to be imposed thereon in addition to the dead load, but shall support a minimum, uniformily distributed live load, exclusive of the materials, as follows: For dwellings not less than forty pounds per square foot; for store and office buildings and buildings for light mercantile purposes, not less than one hundred pounds per square foot for the first floor and not less than fifty pounds per square foot for each floor above the first; for storehouses, warehouses, manufactories, mills and machine shops, (light), not less than one hundred pounds per square foot, (heavy), not less than two hundred fifty pounds per square foot. Maximum spans for wood floor joists for the loads noted shall be listed in the following table. The spans are figured for a maximum deflection of one three hundred sixtieth of the span based on a live load of forty pounds per square foot uniformly distributed and a dead load of fifteen pounds per square foot. Where the spacing of floor joists exceeds sixteen inches on centers, or where the allowable fiber stress of the species or grade of wood used is in excess of twelve hundred pounds, or where the live and dead loads are in excess of those assumed for this table, the span of the joists shall be determined on the same basis as used for this table:
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS
Nominal Size of Joist (in)      Spacing Center to Center (in)   Maximum Clear Span                                              
                1200 lbs*.              1000 lbs*               900 lbs*                
                Ft.     In.     Ft.     In.     Ft.     In.     
2 x 6   12      10      8       9       8       9       2       
        16      9       8       8       8       8       4       
2 x 8   12      14      1       12      10      12      1       
        16      12      7       11      6       11      0       
2 x 10  12      17      9       16      1       15      2       
        16      16      0       14      6       13      9       
2 x 12  12      21      4       19      5       18      4       
        16      19      1       17      5       16      7       
3 x 6   12      12      4       11      3       10      7       
        16      11      3       10      3       9       3       
3 x 8   12      16      4       14      10      13      11      
        16      14      11      13      7       12      9       
3 x 10  12      20      6       18      7       17      5       
        16      18      10      17      1       16      1       
3 x 12  12      24      6       22      3       21      0       
        16      22      7       20      6       19      4       
* Fiber Stress (6-16-65, ss 12.)
Section 4-35. Ceiling joists. Maximum spans for ceiling joists for the loads noted shall be as listed in the following table. The spans are figured for a maximum defection of one three hundred sixtieth of the span, based on a dead load of ten pounds per square foot (no live load), uniformly distributed. Where the attic space above ceiling joists is unfinished, but is usable for light storage space, ceiling joists shall be not less than two inches by six inches. Where the attic space is suitable for finishing into future habitable rooms, the ceiling joists shall be figured the same as for floor joists.
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR CEILING JOISTS
Nominal Size of Joist (in)      Spacing Center to Center (in)   Maximum Clear Span                                              
                1200 lbs*.              1000 lbs*               900 lbs*                
                Ft.     In.     Ft.     In.     Ft.     In.     
2 x 4   12      11      0       10      0       9       4       
        16      10      1       9       2       8       7       
        24      8       11      8       1       7       7       
2 x 6   12      16      7       15      1       14      2       
        16      15      4       13      11      13      1       
        24      13      8       12      5       11      8       
2 x 8   12      21      7       19      8       18      6       
        16      20      1       18      3       17      2       
        24      17      11      16      4       15      4       
* Fiber Stress (6-16-65, ss 13)
Section 4-36. Wood rafters. Maximum spans for wood roof rafters for the loads noted shall be as listed in the following table. The spans are based on a live load of thirty pounds per square foot uniformly distributed considered as acting normal to the roof surface, and a dead load of five pounds per square foot plus the weight of the rafters. Spans are actual unsupported length of rafters measured on the slope of the roof. Plate, ridge and collar beams, if at every rafter, are regarded as supports.
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR ROOF RAFTERS .
For rooms with a minimum slope of 5 to 12
Nominal Size of Joist (in)      Spacing Center to Center (in)   Maximum Clear Span                                              
                1200 lbs*.              1000 lbs*               900 lbs*                
                Ft.     In.     Ft.     In.     Ft.     In.     
2 x 4   12      9       4       8       6       7       2       
        16      8       1       7       4       6       2       
        20      7       3       6       7       5       6       
        24      6       6       6       1       5       1       
2 x 6   12      14      2       13      1       11      0       
        16      12      6       11      5       9       6       
        20      11      4       10      5       8       8       
        24      10      3       9       4       7       8       
2 x 8   12      18      4       16      7       14      3       
        16      16      7       15      3       12      1       
        20      15      2       13      8       11      0       
        24      13      8       12      6       10      0       
* Fiber Stress (6-16-65, ss 14.)
DIVISION 4. FIREPLACES, CHIMNEYS, ETC.
Section 4-37. Chimneys. All chimneys shall be built of brick, cinder blocks, stone or reinforced concrete, the walls of which shall not be less than three and three-fourths inches thick and shall have terra cotta flue linings. Chimneys shall extend at least two feet above the highest ridge. Chimneys shall be built upon concrete or solid masonry foundations. The footing for an exterior chimney shall start below the frost line. Listed factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the term of their listings and the manufacturer's instructions. (6-16-65, ss 28.)
Section 4-38. Fireplaces The back and sides of fireplaces hereafter erected shall be of approved masonry or reinforced concrete of not less than four inches total thickness and shall include a lining of fire brick or other approved material of not less than two inches in thickness. Wooden centers, used in the construction of that part of the supporting arch which is below the hearth of the fireplace inside of the chimney breast, shall be removed when the construction of the arch is completed and before plastering is started on the underside. (6-16-65, ss 29.)
Section 4-39. Smoke pipes Every smoke pipe shall connect with a chimney or other approved flue and shall enter a chimney through a fireclay or metal thimble or flue ring of masonry. No smoke pipe shall pass through a floor nor through a roof. Smoke pipes shall not pass through combustible partitions; provided, that smoke pipes from ordinary ranges and stoves may pass through combustible partitions if they are guarded by double metal ventilating thimbles two inches larger in diameter than the pipe or by steel tubes built in brickwork or other approved fireproofing materials extending not less than eight inches beyond all sides of the tube. (6-16-65, ss 30.) For law of the commonwealth relative to inspection and regulation of buildings, etc., see G.L., c. 143, s 1 et seq. As to appointment and duties of inspector of gas piping and gas appliances, see s 2-2 of this Code. As to defacing or writing on fences, buildings, sidewalks, etc., see s 9-3. As to sewers and sewage disposal, see ch. 12. As to the numbering of buildings, see s 13-1. As to zoning generally, see ch. 15. 2. For law of the commonwealth as to alteration, see G.L. c. 143, s l. 3. For law of the commonwealth as to repair, see G. L., c. 143, s l. 4. For law of the commonwealth as to story, see G.L., c. 143, s 1. 5. Editor's note. - The by-law from which this section is derived was adopted March 23, 1970. 6. As to building permits with respect to zoning, see s 15-5 of this Code. 7. For law of the commonwealth authorizing town to raise penalty to one hundred dollars, see G.L., c. 143, s 3. As to the general penalty, see s 1-8 of this Code.